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2010 Yushu earthquake

來源:apple 編輯:apple 時間:2017-05-07
The 2010 Yushu earthquake struck on April 14 and registered a magnitude of 6.9Mw[5][6] (USGS, EMSC) or 7.1Ms[2][7] (CEA, CENC). It originated in Yushu, Qinghai, China, at 7:49 am local time.[1][8] According to the Xinhua News Agency, 2,698 people have been confirmed dead, 270 missing, and 12,135 injured of which 1,434 are severely injured.[4] The epicenter was located in Rima village (日瑪村/日麻村), Upper Laxiu township (上拉秀鄉) of Yushu County,[9][10] in remote and rugged terrain, near the border of Tibet Autonomous Region. The epicenter is about 30 km from Gyêgu town or Jyekundo, the seat of Yushu County,[11] and about 240 km from Qamdo.[5] The epicenter was in a sparsely populated area on the Tibetan plateau that is regularly hit by earthquakes.[12]

The 12th century Thrangu Monastery and surrounding villages were severely damaged and many monks and villagers were killed.[13]

2010 Yushu earthquake

2010年玉樹地震發生在4月14日,登記量為6.9Mw [5] [6](USGS,EMSC)或7.1Ms [2] [7](CEA,CENC)。 它起源于當地時間上午7:49在中國青海玉樹[1] [8] 據新華社消息,已確定死亡人數2698人,失蹤人員270人,傷員12135人,其中受傷嚴重者為1 3,434人[4] 震中位于玉樹縣上拉秀鄉里馬村(日瑪村/日麻村),靠近西藏自治區邊界偏僻的地形[9] [10]。 震中距離玉樹縣,玉樹縣(Jyekundo)約30公里[11],距離泉州約240公里。[5] 震中位于青藏高原人煙稀少的地區,經常受到地震的襲擊。[12]

12世紀的Thrangu修道院和周圍的村莊受到嚴重破壞,許多僧侶和村民遇害。[13]

2010 Nián yùshù dìzhèn fāshēng zài 4 yuè 14 rì, dēngjì liàng wèi 6.9Mw [5] [6](USGS,EMSC) huò 7.1Ms [2] [7](CEA,CENC). Tā qǐyuán yú dāngdì shíjiān shàngwǔ 7:49 Zài zhōngguó qīnghǎi yùshù [1] [8] jù xīnhuá shè xiāoxi, yǐ quèdìng sǐwáng rénshù 2698 rén, shīzōng rényuán 270 rén, shāngyuán 12135 rén, qízhōng shòushāng yánzhòng zhě wéi 1 3,434 rén [4] zhènzhōng wèiyú yùshù xiàn shàng lā xiù xiānglǐ mǎ cūn (rì mǎ cūn/rì má cūn), kàojìn xīzàng zìzhìqū biānjiè piānpì dì dìxíng [9] [10]. Zhènzhōng jùlí yùshù xiàn, yùshù xiàn (Jyekundo) yuē 30 gōnglǐ [11], jùlí quánzhōu yuē 240 gōnglǐ.[5] Zhènzhōng wèiyú qīngzàng gāoyuán rényānxīshǎo dì dìqū, jīngcháng shòudào dìzhèn de xíjí.[12]

12 Shìjì de Thrangu xiūdàoyuàn hé zhōuwéi de cūnzhuāng shòudào yánzhòng pòhuài, xǔduō sēnglǚ hé cūnmín yùhài.[13]

Contents

    1 Geology
    2 Damage
    3 Response
        3.1 Tribute and Day of Mourning
        3.2 Role of monks and victims' rites
        3.3 External aid
        3.4 High altitude sickness
        3.5 Political issues
    4 List of aftershocks
    5 See also
    6 References
    7 External links
內容

     1地質學
     2傷害
     3響應
         3.1哀悼和哀悼日
         3.2僧侶和受害者儀式的作用
         3.3外援
         3.4高原病
         3.5政治問題
     4余震列表
     5另見
     6參考文獻
     7外部鏈接

Geology
2010 Yushu earthquake

Tectonic map of the Tibetan Plateau showing location of the Xianshuihe fault zone

Qinghai lies in the northeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau, which formed due to the ongoing collision of the Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate. The main deformation in this area is crustal shortening, but there is also a component of left lateral strike-slip faulting on major west–east trending structures such as the Kunlun and Altyn Tagh fault systems that accommodate southeastward translation of the Tibetan area.

The earthquake occurred on the Yushu fault,[14] about 300 kilometres (186 mi) south of the Kunlun fault.[5] The Yushu fault forms part of the Yushu-Garzê-Xianshuihe fault zone (玉樹-甘孜-鮮水河斷裂帶),[15] one of the most active fault zones in eastern Tibet.[16] In history, many earthquakes greater than magnitude 7 have occurred in the Xianshuihe fault zone,[15] for example, the magnitude 7.25 earthquake in the Luhuo area on March 24, 1923, and the Ms 7.6 earthquake on February 6, 1973, in Luhuo.[17] Almost all sections of the Xianshuihe fault zone have produced strong earthquakes in records, except the sections of Yushu and Shimian (石棉). However, a trace of a strong earthquake occurred about 16,000 or 17,000 years ago has been found in Shimian. Hence, the Shimian section of the Xianshuihe fault zone is speculated to be currently locked and have the possibility of producing a strong earthquake in the future.[15]

地質學
青藏高原構造地圖顯示了咸水河斷裂帶的位置

青海位于青藏高原東北部,由于印度板塊與歐亞板塊的不斷沖突而形成。這個地區的主要變形是地殼縮短,但也有主要西北向西結構的左側走滑斷裂的一個組成部分,如適應西藏東南部翻譯的昆侖和阿爾金塔格斷裂系統。

昆侖斷裂南部約三百公里處,玉樹斷裂發生地震[5]玉樹斷裂構成玉樹 - 甘孜 - 鮮水河斷裂帶的一部分,[15]是西藏東部最活躍的斷裂帶之一[16]歷史上,咸水河斷裂帶發生了許多大于7級的地震[15],例如1923年3月24日在盧霍地區發生的7.25級地震,1973年2月6日發生的7.6級地震[17]。除了玉樹和石棉(石棉)的部分外,仙水河斷裂帶幾乎所有部分都有強烈的地震記錄。然而,在Shimian發現了大約16,000或17,000年前發生的一場強烈的地震。因此,西水河斷裂帶的石棉段被推測為目前被鎖定,未來可能會發生強烈的地震。[15]
Dìzhí xué
qīngzàng gāoyuán gòuzào dìtú xiǎnshìle xián shuǐ hé duànliè dài de wèizhì

qīnghǎi wèiyú qīngzàng gāoyuán dōngběi bù, yóuyú yìndù bǎnkuài yǔ ōu yà bǎnkuài de bùduàn chōngtú ér xíngchéng. Zhège dìqū de zhǔyào biànxíng shì dìqiào suōduǎn, dàn yěyǒu zhǔyào xīběi xiàng xi jiégòu de zuǒ cè zǒu huá duànliè de yīgè zǔchéng bùfèn, rú shìyìng xīzàng dōngnánbù fānyì de kūnlún hé ā'ěr jīn tǎ gé duànliè xìtǒng.

Kūnlún duànliè nán bù yuē sānbǎi gōnglǐ chù, yùshù duànliè fāshēng dìzhèn [5] yùshù duànliè gòuchéng yùshù - gānzī - xiān shuǐ hé duànliè dài de yībùfèn,[15] shì xīzàng dōngbù zuì huóyuè de duànliè dài zhī yī [16] lìshǐ shàng, xián shuǐ hé duànliè dài fāshēngle xǔduō dàyú 7 jí dì dìzhèn [15], lìrú 1923 nián 3 yuè 24 rì zài lú huò dìqū fāshēng de 7.25 Jí dìzhèn,1973 nián 2 yuè 6 rì fāshēng de 7.6 Jí dìzhèn [17]. Chúle yùshù hé shímián (shímián) de bùfèn wài, xianshuǐ hé duànliè dài jīhū suǒyǒu bùfèn dōu yǒu qiángliè dì dìzhèn jìlù. Rán'ér, zài Shimian fāxiànle dàyuē 16,000 huò 17,000 nián qián fāshēng de yī chǎng qiángliè dì dìzhèn. Yīncǐ, xi shuǐ hé duànliè dài de shímián duàn bèi tuīcè wèi mùqián bèi suǒdìng, wèilái kěnéng huì fāshēng qiángliè dì dìzhèn.[15]

Damage
Earthquake cleft in the grassland
2010 Yushu earthquake

In Qinghai, building damage was reported with no casualties in the counties of Zadoi, Nangqên, and Qumarleb of Yushu Prefecture.[18] At least 11 schools were destroyed in the earthquake.[19] Over 85% of buildings in Gyegu, mostly of wood-earth construction, were destroyed, leaving hundreds trapped and thousands homeless.[9] A vocational school collapsed and trapped many students.[9] Power outage was also reported in Gyêgu.[20]

In Sichuan, strong shaking could be felt in the counties of Sêrxü, Dêgê, and Baiyü, Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Road damage was reported in Sêrxü County.[21]

Due to the rough terrain and the fact that landslides have destroyed the local infrastructure, the initial rescue operations were undertaken by the People's Armed Police and People's Liberation Army soldiers of Lanzhou Military Region.[22] The Qinghai provincial government said in a public statement that five thousand tents, 100,000 thick, cotton coats, and heavy blankets were being sent to help survivors cope with the strong winds and near-freezing temperatures of around 6 °C (43 °F).[23]

The Yushu Batang Airport was re-opened at noon on Wednesday, April 14, and the first flight with personnel and supplies of the China International Earthquake Rescue Team landed there at 8 pm.[24]

The Changu (禪古) Dam, located on the Batang River (巴塘河; a right tributary of the upper Yangtze River) some 15 km upstream from the Yushu County seat (apparently at 32°54′40″N 97°02′50″E),[25] was damaged by the earthquake. Chinese language news reports as translated in a press release from the International Rivers stated that it is "at the risk of collapse at any time."[26]

Response
    Wikinews has related news: Rescue efforts underway after China earthquake

Chinese President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao urged all-out efforts to help rescue those affected by the earthquake. Several hours after news of the quake broke, Vice Premier Hui Liangyu was sent to the region to oversee rescue efforts.[27][28] Some 3,700 personnel from the Qinghai division of the People's Armed Police was sent to the region to aid in rescue efforts. Specialty personnel also arrived from neighbouring provinces Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia, as well as the Tibet Autonomous Region.[29]

President Hu Jintao was in Brazil at the time and decided to cut short a state visit and BRIC summit and rush back to China to co-ordinate rescue efforts. He also postponed his upcoming tour to Venezuela and Chile. Premier Wen Jiabao arrived in Yushu on April 15 to lead rescue work, and postponed his trip to southeast Asia.[30] Hu arrived in Yushu three days after Wen, to help guide the re
lief efforts and console victims.[31]

Tribute and Day of Mourning
2010 Yushu earthquake

Panorama of Gyegu town (2005) and monastery, is the cultural, economic and political center of Yushu.

On the evening of April 20, a national evening gala was hosted on China Central Television.[32] The event, which drew many celebrities and a large viewership, raised some 2.2 billion yuan ($US 322 million), which exceeded the amount raised in a similar gala for the Sichuan earthquake.[33] April 21 was declared a national day of mourning, reminiscent of a similar event in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. At Zhongnanhai, President Hu Jintao led a minute of silence, alongside the entire Politburo Standing Committee. Newspapers printed in black and white, and all major websites also changed their home page to black and white to reflect the grave mood.[33] Qiang Wei, CPC Party chief of Qinghai, led a large ceremony in Xining; a minute of silence was observed across the entire province, when police sirens and horns sounded.[34]

During the National Day of Mourning, all public entertainment activities were cancelled, and all state-run networks as well as some provincial networks redirected their regular programming to non-stop earthquake coverage.[35] The National Mourning sparked public debate about civil rights on Chinese web forums. The programming particularly irritated football fans, who complained that UEFA Champions League coverage of the Barcelona vs. Inter Milan match was replaced by earthquake coverage, accusing the authorities of being overly concerned with appearances.[35]

City University of Hong Kong professor Zheng Yutou opined that the "Day of Mourning" reflected China's political values - that collective interests and values outweigh those of individuals. Zheng said that this was diametrically opposed to the emphasis on individualism in Western countries. Zheng believed that a top-down public directive for the country is a reflection that without democracy, a formal Day of Mourning is one of a few ways to show that the leadership is concerned about the welfare of the people.[35] A South China Morning Post article said the event was an attempt to distract the public from other ongoing social problems. Yuan Weishi, retired professor at Sun Yat-sen University, disagreed with the assessment that the Day of Mourning should be seen as a political event. He said that the event is not at all surprising given the circumstances, and that there is no real threat to civil liberties.[35] Yuan said that "politicizing the situation makes it needlessly tense". Duowei added that National Days of Mourning have been held in many countries for large natural disasters and emerging as the "international norm".[35]

Role of monks and victims' rites

According to television reports filed by Chen Xiaonan of Hong Kong's Phoenix Television, and the Associated Press, thousands of Tibetan monks were active in the search and rescue for quake victims buried in the rubble, and were successful in the retrieving of buried yet still alive victims, as well as the retrieving of dead bodies and the subsequent conducting of traditional Tibetan sky burial or mass cremation.[36][37]

Monks provided spiritual services and consoling for families of the victims, and performed burial rites. Due to the great number of ethnic Tibetan victims in the quake, local clergy from monasteries said that the traditional sky burial funeral rites would be too difficult to manage, and that the unsanitary conditions meant that the souls of the departed may not reach heaven. A local monk said that it was determined a mass cremation, presided over by local Buddhist monks, would be the most appropriate funeral rite for the victims.[38] The Qinghai provincial Department of Civil Affairs sent out directives that funeral customs for local ethnic minorities must be respected, that the victims themselves must be treated with respect, and for a DNA bank to be set up for bodies who have not yet been identified.[38]

Reports later surfaced in Western media that groups of monks were also asked to leave the disaster area via telephone by local authorities. One monk said that the government may have been concerned about their safety.[39]

External aid
2010 Yushu earthquake

On April 18, the Republic of China (Taiwan) Red Cross Society send a 20-member medical team, composed of volunteers who have extensive experience with first aid and emergency procedures in earthquake and flooding rescue missions, to Qinghai province earthquake area, together with one tonne of medicine and equipment. “We tried to send more supplies but there was not sufficient airlift capacity in the disaster area,” an ROC Red Cross Society spokesman said.[40]

The American Red Cross has sent an initial sum of $50 000 in relief funds to help affected families in the Qinghai Province.[41][42] Many countries and organizations around the world sent condolences and pledged assistance if necessary.[43][44][45] The Artistes 414 Fund Raising Campaign was held at the Hong Kong Coliseum on April 26, 2010.
High altitude sickness

Since Yushu is located at 4000 meter high altitude when concentration of oxygen is much thinner than that at sea level, many rescuers who come from low land have fallen ill due to high altitude sickness, as 300 Guangdong rescuers were forced to be evacuated into lower altitude area, and one Chinese reporter was confirmed dead due to pulmonary complications caused by lack of oxygen.[46]

Political issues

The earthquake occurred in a Tibetan region in Qinghai province, where 93% of the local population is of Tibetan ethnicity, and many locals do not speak or understand Mandarin Chinese, and the community was home to large numbers of Tibetan Buddhists. A New York Times editorial wrote that while the death toll was small compared to the Sichuan earthquake in 2008, the rapid mobilization and highly organized relief effort "underscored the Communist Party’s determination to rally the nation and transform the disaster into a showcase of its benevolence and resolve", as well as an opportunity to showcase ethnic unity and a "softer side" of the government, who is often seen as being at odds with the Tibetan population.[47] State-run English newspaper China Daily praised the work of monks in two separate stories,[48][49] while also stressing the re-building of temples in the region.[49] In addition, state media avoided mention of schools that may have collapsed during the quake, with fresh memories of the public and foreign media backlash from a school construction scandal in Sichuan.[47]

There were earlier rumours that the authorities were attempting to hide the extent of the damage caused by the earthquake. In response, Guo Weimin of the State Council Information Office responded that "all the information coming out of the disaster zone has been accurate, timely, transparent... we will not, have not, and have no reason to alter any of the statistics regarding fatalities."[50] News reporting has also been relatively open; foreign media have been reporting in the area without government interference. In addition, bloggers and independent journalists were also allowed to report in the area, although more "sensitive" issues such as ethnic relations and religion face restrictions.[47] Tibetan activist Woeser acknowledged that the government's relief efforts have been robust, but remarked that relief funds risk embezzlement from local officials.[47] In regards to the authorities declining entry of foreign personnel to the region, the National Ministry of Defence stated that the terrain in Qinghai is rough and that funding and personnel have been largely sufficient for the relief efforts, and that foreign organizations could contribute through monetary donations.[51]

List of aftershocks

The initial earthquake was preceded by a foreshock and followed by several aftershocks, four above magnitude 5, including a M5.8 aftershock at a 4 km (2.5 mi) depth on April 14.[52]

Officials have warned that aftershocks above magnitude 5.5 are likely to continue,[53] and the China Earthquake Networks Center warned that further aftershocks above magnitude 6 are likely for several days following the main earthquake.[54]

Only shocks with magnitude 4.0 or higher are listed. Shocks with magnitude 5.5 or higher are highlighted in light blue. The main shock with moment magnitude 6.9 Mw[1] is highlighted in dark blue.
Date
(YYYY-MM-DD)     Time
(UTC)     Latitude     Longitude     Depth     Magnitude
2010-04-13     21:40:00     33.183° N     96.623° E     18.9 km (12 mi)     5.0 (Mw)
2010-04-13     23:49:39     33.224° N     96.666° E     17.0 km (11 mi)     6.9 (Mw)
2010-04-14     00:01:17     32.875° N     96.999° E     10.0 km (6 mi)     5.3 (Mw)
2010-04-14     00:12:25     33.159° N     96.580° E     10.0 km (6 mi)     5.2 (Mw)
2010-04-14     01:25:15     33.179° N     96.448° E     4.0 km (2 mi)     5.8 (Mw)
2010-04-17     00:59:01     32.588° N     92.743°E     40.6 km (25 mi)     5.1 (Mw)

損傷
地震在草地上裂開

在青海,據報玉樹縣的Zadoi,Nangqên和Qumarleb縣的建筑物沒有造成傷亡事故。[18]地震中至少有11所學校被摧毀[19] Gyegu的85%以上的大部分建筑物被毀壞,造成數百人陷入困境,數千人無家可歸。[9]職業學校倒塌,困擾了許多學生。[9] Gyêgu也報告停電。[20]

在四川,西藏藏族自治州的Sêrxü,Dêgê和Baiyü縣也感到震驚。 Sêrxü縣報告道路損壞。[21]

由于崎嶇的地形,山體滑坡破壞了當地的基礎設施,最初的救援行動是由蘭州軍區人民武裝力量和解放軍士兵進行的。[22]青海省政府在公開聲明中說,正在派出五千個帳篷,十萬厚厚的棉花外套和沉重的毯子,幫助幸存者應對大約6°C(43°F)的強風和近冷凍溫度。 [23]

玉樹巴塘機場于四月十四日(星期三)中午重新開放,第一班中國國際地震救援隊人員和物資搭載于晚上八時降落。

位于八卦河(巴塘河,長江上游右側支流)的禪古水壩,距玉樹縣上游約15公里(顯然為32°54'40“N 97°02' 50“E),[25]受到地震的破壞。來自國際河流的新聞稿中翻譯的中文新聞報道稱,“隨時都有崩潰的風險”。[26]
Sǔnshāng
dìzhèn zài cǎodì shàng liè kāi

zài qīnghǎi, jù bào yùshù xiàn de Zadoi,Nangqên hé Qumarleb xiàn de jiànzhú wù méiyǒu zàochéng shāngwáng shìgù.[18] Dìzhèn zhōng zhìshǎo yǒu 11 suǒ xuéxiào bèi cuīhuǐ [19] Gyegu de 85%yǐshàng de dà bùfèn jiànzhú wù bèi huǐhuài, zàochéng shù bǎi rén xiànrù kùnjìng, shù qiān rén wú jiā kě guī.[9] Zhíyè xuéxiào dǎotā, kùnrǎole xǔduō xuéshēng.[9] Gyêgu yě bàogào tíngdiàn.[20]

Zài sìchuān, xīzàng zàngzú zìzhìzhōu de Sêrxü,Dêgê hé Baiyü xiàn yě gǎndào zhènjīng. Sêrxü xiàn bàogào dàolù sǔnhuài.[21]

Yóuyú qíqū dì dìxíng, shāntǐ huápō pòhuài liǎo dàng dì de jīchǔ shèshī, zuìchū de jiùyuán xíngdòng shì yóu lánzhōu jūnqū rénmín wǔzhuāng lìliàng hé jiěfàngjūn shìbīng jìnxíng de.[22] Qīnghǎi shěng zhèngfǔ zài gōngkāi shēngmíng zhōng shuō, zhèngzài pàichū wǔqiān gè zhàngpéng, shí wàn hòu hòu de miánhuā wàitào hé chénzhòng de tǎnzi, bāngzhù xìngcún zhě yìngduì dàyuē 6°C(43°F) de qiángfēng hé jìn lěngdòng wēndù. [23]

Yùshù ba táng jīchǎng yú sì yuè shísì rì (xīngqísān) zhōngwǔ chóngxīn kāifàng, dì yī bān zhōngguó guójì dìzhèn jiùyuán duì rényuán hé wùzī dāzài yú wǎnshàng bā shí jiàngluò.

Wèiyú bāguà hé (ba táng hé, chángjiāng shàngyóu yòu cè zhīliú) de chán gǔ shuǐbà, jù yùshù xiàn shàngyóu yuē 15 gōnglǐ (xiǎnrán wèi 32°54'40“N 97°02' 50“E),[25] shòudào dìzhèn de pò huài. Láizì guójì héliú de xīnwén gǎo zhōng fānyì de zhōngwén xīnwén bàodào chēng,“suíshí dōu yǒu bēngkuì de fēngxiǎn”.[26]


響應
維基新聞有相關消息:中國地震后救援工作正在進行中

中國國家主席胡錦濤和溫家寶總理要求全力協助救援受地震影響的人們。地震發生后幾個小時,副總理惠良玉被派往該地區監督救援工作。[27] [28]來自青海省人民武裝警察部隊的3,700人被派往該地區進行救援工作。專業人員也來自鄰近的甘肅,陜西,寧夏以及西藏自治區。[29]

胡錦濤主席當時在巴西,決定縮短國事訪問和金磚四國首腦會議,趕回中國協調救援工作。他還推遲了他前往委內瑞拉和智利的旅程。溫家寶總理4月15日抵達玉樹,領導救援工作,推遲到東南亞旅行。[30]胡文濤三天抵達玉樹,協助指導救援工作和控球臺受害者。[31]
Xiǎngyìng
wéijī xīnwén yǒu xiāngguān xiāoxi: Zhōngguó dìzhèn hòu jiùyuán gōngzuò zhèngzài jìnxíng zhōng

zhōngguó guójiā zhǔxí hújǐntāo hé wēnjiābǎo zǒnglǐ yāoqiú quánlì xiézhù jiùyuán shòu dìzhèn yǐngxiǎng de rénmen. Dìzhèn fāshēng hòu jǐ gè xiǎoshí, fù zǒnglǐ huìliáng yù bèi pài wǎng gāi dìqū jiāndū jiùyuán gōngzuò.[27] [28] Láizì qīnghǎi xǐng rénmín wǔzhuāng jǐngchá bùduì de 3,700 rén bèi pài wǎng gāi dìqū jìnxíng jiùyuán gōngzuò. Zhuānyè rényuán yě láizì línjìn de gānsù, shǎnxī, níngxià yǐjí xīzàng zìzhìqū.[29]

Hújǐntāo zhǔxí dāngshí zài bāxī, juédìng suōduǎn guóshì fǎngwèn hé jīn zhuān sìguó shǒunǎo huìyì, gǎn huí zhōngguó xiétiáo jiùyuán gōngzuò. Tā hái tuīchíle tā qiánwǎng wěinèiruìlā hé zhìlì de lǚchéng. Wēnjiābǎo zǒnglǐ 4 yuè 15 rì dǐdá yùshù, lǐngdǎo jiùyuán gōngzuò, tuīchí dào dōngnányà lǚxíng.[30] Húwéntāo sān tiān dǐdá yùshù, xiézhù zhǐdǎo jiùyuán gōngzuò hé kòng qiútái shòuhài zhě.[31]

悼念和哀悼日
景谷鎮(2005)和修道院的全景是玉樹的文化,經濟和政治中心。

4月20日晚,中央電視臺舉辦了全國晚會。[32]這次吸引了眾多名人和大型觀眾的活動,籌集了約22億元人民幣(3.22億美元),超過了四川地震類似節目的金額。[33] 4月21日被宣布為國慶之日,令人想起2008年四川地震中類似的事件。在中南海,胡錦濤主席與政治局常委會一道,沉默了一分鐘。報紙以黑白印刷,所有主要網站也將主頁改為黑白,以反映嚴重的情緒。[33]青海省黨委書記蔣偉率領西寧舉行大型儀式,整個省份都有一分鐘的沉默,警察的警報和喇叭響起。[34]

在國慶節期間,所有公共娛樂活動均被取消,所有國營網絡以及部分省級網絡將其常規計劃重新定向到不間斷地震覆蓋。[35]全國哀悼引發了關于中國網絡論壇公民權利的公開辯論。這個節目特別激怒了足球迷,他們抱怨說,歐洲冠軍聯賽對巴塞羅那和國際米蘭的比賽都被地震覆蓋,被指責當局過分關注外表。[35]

香港城市大學教授鄭玉頭認為,“哀樂日”反映了中國的政治價值觀 - 集體利益和價值觀超過個人的價值觀。鄭說,這與西方國家強調個人主義完全相反。鄭先生認為,自上而下的公共指令反映出,沒有民主的情況下,正式的“哀樂日”是表明領導層關心人民福利的幾種方式之一。[35] “南華早報”的文章說,這次事件是企圖將公眾分散在其他正在發生的社會問題上。中山大學退休教授袁偉史不同意評估說“哀樂日”應該被視為政治事件。他表示,鑒于情況并不令人驚訝,而且對公民自由沒有真正的威脅。[35]袁說,“把事態政治化,不合時宜”。多維補充說,國慶日在許多國家舉行大型自然災害,并成為“國際規范”。[35]
Dàoniàn hé āidào rì
jǐnggǔ zhèn (2005) hé xiūdàoyuàn de quánjǐng shì yùshù de wénhuà, jīngjì hé zhèngzhì zhōngxīn.

4 Yuè 20 rì wǎn, zhōngyāng diànshìtái jǔbànle quánguó wǎnhuì.[32] Zhè cì xīyǐnle zhòngduō míngrén hé dàxíng guānzhòng de huódòng, chóujíle yuē 22 yì yuán rénmínbì (3.22 Yì měiyuán), chāoguòle sìchuān dìzhèn lèisì jiémù dì jīn'é.[33] 4 Yuè 21 rì bèi xuānbù wèi guóqìng zhī rì, lìng rén xiǎngqǐ 2008 nián sìchuān dìzhèn zhōng lèisì de shìjiàn. Zài zhōngnánhǎi, hújǐntāo zhǔxí yǔ zhèngzhì jú chángwěi huì yīdào, chénmòle yī fēnzhōng. Bàozhǐ yǐ hēibái yìnshuā, suǒyǒu zhǔyào wǎngzhàn yě jiāng zhǔyè gǎi wèi hēibái, yǐ fǎnyìng yánzhòng de qíngxù.[33] Qīnghǎi shěng dǎngwěi shūjì jiǎng wěi shuàilǐng xiníng jǔxíng dàxíng yíshì, zhěnggè shěngfèn dōu yǒuyī fēnzhōng de chénmò, jǐngchá de jǐngbào hé lǎbā xiǎngqǐ.[34]

Zài guóqìng jié qíjiān, suǒyǒu gōnggòng yúlè huódòng jūn bèi qǔxiāo, suǒyǒu guóyíng wǎngluò yǐjí bùfèn shěng jí wǎngluò jiāng qí chángguī jìhuà chóngxīn dìngxiàng dào bù jiànduàn dìzhèn fùgài.[35] Quánguó āidào yǐnfāle guānyú zhōngguó wǎngluò lùntán gōngmín quánlì de gōngkāi biànlùn. Zhège jiémù tèbié jīnùle zúqiú mí, tāmen bàoyuàn shuō, ōuzhōu guànjūn liánsài duì basèluōnà hé guójì mǐlán de bǐsài dōu bèi dìzhèn fùgài, pī zhǐzé dāngjú guòfèn guānzhù wàibiǎo.[35]

Xiānggǎng chéngshì dàxué jiàoshòu zhèng yù tóu rènwéi,“āiyuè rì” fǎnyìngle zhōngguó de zhèngzhì jiàzhíguān - jítǐ lìyì hé jiàzhíguān chāoguò gèrén de jiàzhíguān. Zhèng shuō, zhè yǔ xīfāng guójiā qiángdiào gèrén zhǔyì wánquán xiāngfǎn. Zhèng xiānshēng rènwéi, zì shàng ér xià de gōnggòng zhǐlìng fǎnyìng chū, méiyǒu mínzhǔ de qíngkuàng xià, zhèngshì de “āiyuè rì” shì biǎomíng lǐngdǎo céng guānxīn rénmín fúlì de jǐ zhǒng fāngshì zhī yī.[35] “Nánhuá zǎobào” de wénzhāng shuō, zhè cì shìjiàn shì qìtú jiāng gōngzhòng fēnsàn zài qítā zhèngzài fāshēng de shèhuì wèntí shàng. Zhōngshān dàxué tuìxiū jiàoshòu yuán wěi shǐ bù tóngyì pínggū shuō “āiyuè rì” yīnggāi bèi shì wéi zhèngzhì shìjiàn. Tā biǎoshì, jiànyú qíngkuàng bìng bù lìng rén jīngyà, érqiě duì gōngmín zìyóu méiyǒu zhēnzhèng de wēixié.[35] Yuán shuō,“bǎ shìtài zhèngzhì huà, bùhéshíyí”. Duōwéi bǔchōng shuō, guóqìng rì zài xǔduō guójiā jǔxíng dàxíng zìrán zāihài, bìng chéngwéi “guójì guīfàn”.[35]

和尚和受害者儀式的作用

據香港鳳凰衛視陳曉楠和美聯社報道的電視報道,成千上萬的西藏僧侶們積極尋找埋藏在瓦礫中的地震災民的搜救工作,并成功地挽救了尚未活著的兇手,以及追查尸體,隨后進行傳統的西藏天空埋葬或大規模火葬。[36] [37]

僧侶為受難者的家屬提供精神服務和安慰,并進行埋葬儀式。由于災區西藏受害者人數眾多,修道院的當地神職人員說,傳統的天空葬禮儀式難以管理,不衛生的條件意味著離境的靈魂不能到達天堂。當地一名和尚說,由當地佛教僧人主持的大規模火葬活動將成為受害者最適合的葬禮儀式。[38]青海省民政部頒布的指導要尊重當地少數民族的殯葬習俗,受害者本人必須得到尊重,并為尚未確定的機構設立DNA銀行。 38]

后來西方媒體報道說,還有一些僧人也被要求通過地方當局的電話離開災區。一位和尚說,政府可能關心他們的安全。[39]
Héshàng hé shòuhài zhě yíshì de zuòyòng

jù xiānggǎng fènghuáng wèishì chénxiǎonán héměi lián shè bàodào de diànshì bàodào, chéng qiān shàng wàn de xī cáng sēnglǚmen jījí xúnzhǎo máicáng zài wǎlì zhōng dì dìzhèn zāimín de sōujiù gōngzuò, bìng chénggōng de wǎnjiùle shàngwèi huózhe de xiōngshǒu, yǐjí zhuīchá shītǐ, suíhòu jìnxíng chuántǒng de xī cáng tiānkōng máizàng huò dà guīmó huǒzàng.[36] [37]

Sēnglǚ wèi shòunàn zhě de jiāshǔ tígōng jīngshén fúwù hé ānwèi, bìng jìnxíng máizàng yíshì. Yóuyú zāiqū xīzàng shòuhài zhě rénshù zhòngduō, xiūdàoyuàn dí dàng de shénzhí rényuán shuō, chuántǒng de tiānkōng zànglǐ yíshì nányǐ guǎnlǐ, bù wèishēng de tiáojiàn yìwèizhe lí jìng de línghún bùnéng dàodá tiāntáng. Dāngdì yī míng héshàng shuō, yóu dāngdì fójiào sēngrén zhǔchí de dà guīmó huǒzàng huódòng jiāng chéngwéi shòuhài zhě zuì shìhé de zànglǐ yíshì.[38] Qīnghǎi shěng mínzhèng bù bānbù de zhǐdǎo yào zūnzhòng dāngdì shǎoshù mínzú de bìnzàng xísú, shòuhài zhě běnrén bìxū dédào zūnzhòng, bìng wèi shàngwèi quèdìng de jīgòu shèlì DNA yínháng. 38]

Hòulái xīfāng méitǐ bàodào shuō, hái yǒu yīxiē sēngrén yě bèi yāoqiú tōngguò dìfāng dāngjú de diànhuà líkāi zāiqū. Yī wèi héshàng shuō, zhèngfǔ kěnéng guānxīn tāmen de ānquán.[39]

外援

4月18日,中華民國(臺灣)紅十字會向青海省地震災區發送了一支由志愿者組成的20人組成的醫療隊,他們在地震和淹水救援任務方面有急救急救程序,一噸藥物和設備。中國紅十字會發言人說:“我們試圖發送更多的物資,但在災區沒有足夠的空運能力。[40]

美國紅十字會已撥出5萬元的救濟資金,幫助青海省受影響的家庭[41] [42]全球許多國家和組織在必要時向他們表示慰問,并作出認捐。[43] [44] [45] “藝術家414”籌款活動于2010年4月26日在香港體育館舉行。
高原病

由于玉樹位于高海拔高度4000米處,氧氣濃度比海平面要薄得多,許多來自低地的救援人員由于高原病而下病,因為300名廣東救援人員被迫撤離到較低的高度一名中國記者因缺氧導致肺部并發癥而死亡。[46]
Wàiyuán

4 yuè 18 rì, zhōnghuá mínguó (táiwān) hóng shízì huì xiàng qīnghǎi shěng dìzhèn zāiqū fāsòngle yī zhī yóu zhìyuàn zhě zǔchéng de 20 rén zǔchéng de yīliáo duì, tāmen zài dìzhèn hé yān shuǐ jiùyuán rènwù fāngmiàn yǒu jíjiù jíjiù chéngxù, yī dūn yàowù hé shèbèi. Zhōngguó hóng shízì huì fāyán rén shuō:“Wǒmen shìtú fāsòng gèng duō de wùzī, dàn zài zāiqū méiyǒu zúgòu de kōngyùn nénglì.[40]

Měiguó hóng shízì huì yǐ bō chū 5 wàn yuán de jiùjì zījīn, bāngzhù qīnghǎi shěng shòu yǐngxiǎng de jiātíng [41] [42] quánqiú xǔduō guójiā hé zǔzhī zài bìyào shí xiàng tāmen biǎoshì wèiwèn, bìng zuòchū rèn juān.[43] [44] [45] “Yìshùjiā 414” chóu kuǎn huódòng yú 2010 nián 4 yuè 26 rì zài xiānggǎng tǐyùguǎn jǔxíng.
Gāoyuán bìng

yóuyú yùshù wèiyú gāo hǎibá gāodù 4000 mǐ chù, yǎngqì nóngdù bǐ hǎi píngmiàn yào báo de duō, xǔduō láizì dīdì de jiùyuán rényuán yóuyú gāoyuán bìng ér xià bìng, yīnwèi 300 míng guǎngdōng jiùyuán rényuán bèi pò chèlí dào jiào dī de gāodù yī míng zhōngguó jìzhě yīn quē yǎng dǎozhì fèi bù bìngfā zhèng ér sǐwáng.[46]

政治問題

地震發生在青海省西藏地區,當地人口中有93%是藏族,許多當地人不懂漢語,而且社區里藏著大量藏傳佛教徒。紐約時報社的一篇社論寫道:2008年四川地震時死亡人數較少,快速動員和高度安定的救援工作“突出表明,共產黨決心拉動國家,把災難轉化為一場仁慈的展示,決心“,也有機會展示民族團結和政府的”更軟弱的一面“,他們經常被認為與西藏人民不符。國營英文報“中國日報”在兩個不同的故事[48] [49]中贊揚僧侶的工作,同時也強調了該地區寺廟的重建。此外,國家媒體也避免提到在地震期間可能已經崩潰的學校,公眾和外界媒體對四川學校建筑丑聞的反響都有新鮮回響。[47]

早些時候傳言當局正試圖掩蓋地震造成的損失程度。作為回應,國務院新聞辦公室郭偉民回答說,“從災區出來的所有信息都準確,及時,透明......我們不會也沒有理由改變任何統計關于死亡人數。“[50]新聞報道也比較開放;外國媒體一直在該地區進行報道,沒有政府干預。此外,博客和獨立新聞記者也被允許在該地區進行報道,雖然種族關系和宗教等更為敏感的問題面臨限制。[47]西藏積極分子Woeser承認,政府的救災工作穩健,但表示救災資金有可能貪污地方官員。[47]對于當局拒絕外國人員進駐該地區的當局,國防部表示,青海的地形格局粗暴,資金和人員已經足夠用于救災工作,外國組織可以通過貨幣捐款做出貢獻[51]。
Zhèngzhì wèntí

dìzhèn fāshēng zài qīnghǎi shěng xīzàng dìqū, dāngdì rénkǒu zhōng yǒu 93%shì zàngzú, xǔduō dāngdì rén bù dǒng hànyǔ, érqiě shèqū lǐ cángzhe dàliàng zàng chuán fójiào tú. Niǔyuē shí bàoshè de yī piān shèlùn xiě dào:2008 Nián sìchuān dìzhèn shí sǐwáng rénshù jiào shǎo, kuàisù dòngyuán hé gāodù āndìng de jiùyuán gōngzuò “túchū biǎomíng, gòngchǎndǎng juéxīn lādòng guójiā, bǎ zāinàn zhuǎnhuà wéi yī chǎng réncí de zhǎnshì, juéxīn “, yěyǒu jīhuì zhǎnshì mínzú tuánjié hé zhèngfǔ de” gèng ruǎnruò de yīmiàn “, tāmen jīngcháng bèi rènwéi yǔ xīzàng rénmín bùfú. Guóyíng yīngwén bào “zhōngguó rìbào” zài liǎng gè bùtóng de gùshì [48] [49] zhōng zànyáng sēnglǚ de gōngzuò, tóngshí yě qiángdiàole gāi dìqū sìmiào de chóngjiàn. Cǐwài, guójiā méitǐ yě bìmiǎn tí dào zài dìzhèn qíjiān kěnéng yǐjīng bēngkuì de xuéxiào, gōngzhòng hé wàijiè méitǐ duì sìchuān xuéxiào jiànzhú chǒuwén de fǎnxiǎng dōu yǒu xīnxiān huíxiǎng.[47]

Zǎo xiē shíhou chuányán dāngjú zhèng shìtú yǎngài dìzhèn zàochéng de sǔnshī chéngdù. Zuòwéi huíyīng, guówùyuàn xīnwén bàngōngshì guōwěimín huídá shuō,“cóng zāiqū chūlái de suǒyǒu xìnxī dōu zhǔnquè, jíshí, tòumíng...... Wǒmen bù huì yě méiyǒu lǐyóu gǎibiàn rènhé tǒngjì guānyú sǐwáng rénshù.“[50] Xīnwén bàodào yě bǐjiào kāifàng; wàiguó méitǐ yīzhí zài gāi dìqū jìnxíng bàodào, méiyǒu zhèngfǔ gānyù. Cǐwài, bókè hé dúlì xīnwén jìzhě yě bèi yǔnxǔ zài gāi dìqū jìnxíng bàodào, suīrán zhǒngzú guānxì hé zōngjiào děng gèng wèi mǐngǎn de wèntí miànlín xiànzhì.[47] Xīzàng jījí fèn zi Woeser chéngrèn, zhèngfǔ de jiùzāi gōngzuò wěnjiàn, dàn biǎoshì jiùzāi zījīn yǒu kěnéng tānwū dìfāng guānyuán.[47] Duìyú dāngjú jùjué wàiguó rényuán jìnzhù gāi dìqū dí dàng jú, guófáng bù biǎoshì, qīnghǎi dì dìxíng géjú cūbào, zījīn hé rényuán yǐjīng zúgòu yòng yú jiùzāi gōngzuò, wàiguó zǔzhī kěyǐ tōngguò huòbì juānkuǎn zuò chū gòngxiàn [51].

余震列表

最初的地震之前是一個前兆,其次是幾次余震,四次超過五次,其中包括四月十四號四公里(2.5英里)的M5.8余震。[52]

官員警告說,5.5級以上的余震可能會繼續下去,53中國地震網絡中心警告說,主震6年以后可能會有更多的余震。

僅列出4.0級以上的震蕩。 5.5級以上的震擊以淺藍色突出顯示。力矩6.9 Mw [1]的主要沖擊以深藍色突出顯示。
日期
(YYYY-MM-DD)時間
(UTC)緯度經度深度大小
2010-04-13 21:40:00 33.183°N 96.623°E 18.9 km(12 mi)5.0(Mw)
2010-04-13 23:49:39 33.224°N 96.666°E 17.0 km(11 mi)6.9(Mw)
2010-04-14 00:01:17 32.875°N 96.999°E 10.0 km(6 mi)5.3(Mw)
2010-04-14 00:12:25 33.159°N 96.580°E 10.0 km(6 mi)5.2(Mw)
2010-04-14 01:25:15 33.179°N 96.448°E 4.0 km(2 mi)5.8(Mw)
2010-04-17 00:59:01 32.588°N 92.743°E 40.6 km(25 mi)5.1(Mw)
Yúzhèn lièbiǎo

zuìchū dì dìzhèn zhīqián shì yīgè qiánzhào, qícì shì jǐ cì yúzhèn, sì cì chāoguò wǔ cì, qízhōng bāokuò sì yuè shísì hào sì gōnglǐ (2.5 Yīnglǐ) de M5.8 Yúzhèn.[52]

Guānyuán jǐnggào shuō,5.5 Jí yǐshàng de yúzhèn kěnéng huì jìxù xiàqù,53 zhōngguó dìzhèn wǎngluò zhōngxīn jǐnggào shuō, zhǔ zhèn 6 nián yǐhòu kěnéng huì yǒu gèng duō de yúzhèn.

Jǐn liè chū 4.0 Jí yǐshàng de zhèndàng. 5.5 Jí yǐshàng de zhèn jí yǐqiǎn lán sè túchū xiǎnshì. Lìjǔ 6.9 Mw [1] de zhǔyào chòng jí yǐ shēnlán sè túchū xiǎnshì.
Rìqí
(YYYY-MM-DD) shíjiān
(UTC) wěidù jīngdù shēndù dàxiǎo
2010-04-13 21:40:00 33.183°N 96.623°E 18.9 Km(12 mi)5.0(Mw)
2010-04-13 23:49:39 33.224°N 96.666°E 17.0 Km(11 mi)6.9(Mw)
2010-04-14 00:01:17 32.875°N 96.999°E 10.0 Km(6 mi)5.3(Mw)
2010-04-14 00:12:25 33.159°N 96.580°E 10.0 Km(6 mi)5.2(Mw)
2010-04-14 01:25:15 33.179°N 96.448°E 4.0 Km(2 mi)5.8(Mw)
2010-04-17 00:59:01 32.588°N 92.743°E 40.6 Km(25 mi)5.1(Mw)




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